Linear response time-dependent density functional theory of the Hubbard dimer
The asymmetric Hubbard dimer is used to study the density-dependence of the exact frequencydependent kernel of linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. The exact form of the kernel is given, and the limitations of the adiabatic approximation utilizing the exact ground-state functional are shown. The oscillator strength sum rule is proven for lattice Hamiltonians, and relative oscillator strengths are defined appropriately. The method of Casida for extracting oscillator strengths from a frequencydependent kernel is demonstrated to yield the exact result with this kernel. An unambiguous way of labelling the nature of excitations is given. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is proven for the groundstate exchange-correlation energy. The distinction between weak and strong correlation is shown to depend on the ratio of interaction to asymmetry. A simple interpolation between carefully defined weak-correlation and strong-correlation regimes yields a density-functional approximation for the kernel that gives accurate transition frequencies for both the single and double excitations, including charge-transfer excitations.