Publicaciones Nanomedicina

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13

Jun 2018

Epigenetic dysregulation of TET2 in human glioblastoma

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Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes are frequently deregulated in cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we report that TET2 shows frequent epigenetic alterations in human glioblastoma including DNA hypermethylation and hypo-hydroxymethylation, as well as loss of histone acetylation. Ectopic overexpression of TET2 regulated neural differentiation in glioblastoma cell lines and impaired tumor growth. Our results suggest that epigenetic dysregulation of TET2 plays a role in human glioblastoma.

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14

May 2018

SDHC Promoter Methylation, a Novel Pathogenic Mechanism in Parasympathetic Paragangliomas

Posted by / in Publicaciones Nanomedicina, Publications 2018, Publications Nanomedicine 2018, Últimas Publicaciones CINN / No comments yet

Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase A, B, C, and D genes (collectively, SDHx) predispose to the development of paragangliomas (PGLs) arising at the parasympathetic or sympathetic neuroendocrine systems. SDHxmutations cause absence of tumoral immunostaining for SDHB. However, negative SDHB immunostaining has also been found in a subset of PGLs that lack SDHx mutations.
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Here, we report the comprehensive molecular characterization of one such a tumor of parasympathetic origin compared with healthy paraganglia and other PGLs with or without SDHx mutations.

Results

Integration of multiplatform data revealed somatic SDHC methylation and loss of the 1q23.3 region containing the SDHC gene. This correlated with decreased SDHC messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Furthermore, another genetic event found affected the VHL gene, which showed a decreased DNA copy number, associated with low VHL mRNA levels, and an absence of VHL protein detected by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the tumor displayed a pseudohypoxic phenotype consisting in overexpression of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and miR-210, as well as downregulation of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme (ISCU) involved in SDHB maturation. This profile resembles that of SDHx- or VHL-mutated PGLs but not of PGLs with decreased VHL copy number, pointing to SDHC rather than VHL as the pathogenic driver.

Conclusions

Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential importance of both the SDHC epigenomic event and the activation of the HIF-1α/miR-210/ISCU axis in the pathogenesis of SDHx wild-type/SDHB-negative PGLs. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a sporadic parasympathetic PGL that carries silencing of SDHC, fulfilling the two-hit Knudson’s model for tumorigenesis.

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20

Apr 2018

TERRA recruitment of polycomb to telomeres is essential for histone trymethylation marks at telomeric heterochromatin

Posted by / in Publicaciones Destacadas, Publicaciones Nanomedicina, Publications 2018, Publications Nanomedicine 2018, Últimas Publicaciones CINN / No comments yet

TERRAs are long non-coding RNAs generated from the telomeres. Lack of TERRA knockout models has hampered understanding TERRAs’ functions. We recently identified chromosome 20q as one of the main origins of human TERRAs, allowing us to generate the first 20qTERRA knockout models and to demonstrate that TERRAs are essential for telomere length maintenance and protection. Here, we use ALT 20q-TERRA knockout cells to address a direct role of TERRAs in telomeric heterochromatin formation. We find that 20q-TERRAs are essential for the establishment of H3K9me3, H4K20me3, and H3K27me3 heterochromatin marks at telomeres. At the mechanistic level, we find that TERRAs bind to PRC2, responsible for catalyzing H3K27 tri-methylation, and that its localization to telomeres is TERRAdependent. We further demonstrate that PRC2-dependent H3K27me3 at telomeres is required for the establishment of H3K9me3, H4K20me3, and HP1 binding at telomeres. Together, these findings demonstrate an important role for TERRAs in telomeric heterochromatin assembly.

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